Santal & its language
The Santals are numerically largest homogenous tribal groups
in India and its major concentration is in Jharkhand State. The Jharkhand state is one of the most thickly populated areas of tribals in India. The major
tribal groups in this area are Santals, Oraon, Munda, Kharia, Ho, Gonds, Bhumij and Khond. Compares with other groups of Adivasis
in India, the Adivasis of this area are more organised, educated and are aware of their problems. Santal and other tribal
communities, who inhabit the Chotanagpur palateau of Jharkhand and the adjoining areas in the states of old Madhya Pradesh,
Orissa and West Bengal, Assam and Tripura have a certain amount of culture homogeneity, particularly with regard to language,
culture, and ownership rights on land. Like the other tribal communities elsewhere in India, these tribes too live in comparative
isolation for a long time. But during the British rule, with the development of communication facilities, they came in steady
contact with various caste groups, who had penetrated to this region from the adjoining areas. They facilitated and brought
in a gradual process of acculturation among the tribes of the region, and in course of time a symbolic relationship grew up
between the artisan and vocational castes and tribal communities living side by side in the rural area.
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Hul : Freedom struggle
Hul is a Santali term. It means a movement for
liberation. Santals in Santal Paraganas (presently in the State of Jharkhand) belongs to Santali tribe. Two Murmu brothers,
Sido and Kanhu.
Master minded the famous Santal Hul (liberation movement) of 1855-57; a heroic episode in India's
prolonged struggle for freedom. It was, in all probablity, the fiercest liberation movement in India next to Great Sepoy Mutiny
With the capture of political power of India by the East India Company, the natural habitats of
the indigenous people including the Santals began to shatter by the intruders like money lenders. Traders and revenue farmers,
who descended upon them in large numbers under the patronage of the Company.
Believe it or not, the rate of interest on loan to the poor and illiterate Santals varied from 50%
to 500%. These intruders were, needless to mention the crucial links in the chain of ruthless exploitation under colonial
rule. They were the instruments through which the indigenous groups and tribes were brought within the influence and control
of the colonial economy.
Discontent had been simmering in the Santal Paraganas from the early decades of the nineteenth century
owing to most naked exploitation of the indigenous Santals by both the British authorities and their collaborators, native
Sido Murmu and Kanhu Murmu, hailing from the village Bhognadih in Sahibganj district, had long been
brooding over the injustices perpetrated by the oppressors like hundreds and hundreds of their tribe's men. The situation
finally reached a flash point and, not surprisingly, a small episode that took place in July 1855 triggered one of the fiercest
uprisings that the British administration ever faced in India.
The emergence of Sido and Kanhu, youthful, dynamic and charismatic, provided a rallying point for
the Santals to revolt against the oppressors .On 30th June 1855, a large number of Santals assembled in a field in Bhagnadihi
village of Santal Paragana, They declared themselves as free and took oath under the leadership of Sido Murmu and Kanhu Murmu
to fight unto the last against the British rulers as well as their agents.
Militant mood of the Santals frightened the authority. A Police agent confronted them on the 7th
July and tried to place the Murmu brothers under arrest. The angry crowd reacted violently and killed the Police agent and
his companions. The event sparked off a series of confrontations with the Company's Army and subsequently reached the scale
of a full-fledged war.
At the outset, Santal rebels, led by Sido and Kanhu, made tremendous gains and captured control
over a large tract of the country extending from Rajmahal hills in Bhagalpur district to Sainthia in Birbhum district. For
the time being, British rule in this vast area became completely paralysed.
Many moneylenders and native agents of the Company were killed. Local British administrators took
shelter in the Pakur Fort to save their life. However, they rebel could not hold on to their gains due to the superior fire
power of the East India Company came down heavily on them.
courage, chivalry and sacrifice of the Santals were countered by the rulers with veritable butchery. Out of 50,000 Santal
rebels, 15,000 20,000 were killed by the British lndian Army. The Company was finally able to suppress the rebellion in 1856,
though some outbreaks continued till1857.
It is believed that Sido was captured by the British forces through treachery and Kanhu through
an encounter at Uparbanda. And was subsequently killed in captivity. The Santal Hul, however, did not come to an end in vain.
It had a long-lasting impact. Santal Parganas Tenancy Act was the outcome of this struggle, which dished out some sort of
protection to the indigenous people from the ruthless colonial exploitation.
The Department of Post, Government of India can claim accolade from the country-loving Indians for
its commendable action by releasing a beautiful commemorative postage stamp on the valiant martyrs Sido Murmu and Kanhu Murmu
on 6th April 2002. It's a right and timely move by the Department of Post indeed. No doubt about it.
the original habitants of India
This is a some points
whcih exculsively proved our traditonal thinking that Santal and as whole tribals are the original habitants of India.
An international study led by Michale J. Bamshad of the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics of the University of Utah of caste
origins has found (the findings have been reported in a recent issue of the journal Genome Research) that members of the upper
castes are genetically more similar to Europeans, Western Eurasians to be specific, whereas the lower castes are more similar
to Asians. This finding is in tune with the expectations based on historical reasoning and the prevalent views of many social
historians. In exercising their superiority over native proto-Asian populations, the Aryans would have appointed themselves
to higher rank castes. The 18-member research team includes scientists from the United States, the United Kingdom, India and
Estonia. The collaborating Indian scientists were anthropologists Bhaskar
Rao, J. Mastan Naidu and B. V. Ravi Prasad from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, and P. Govinda Reddy from the University
of Madras. Here is some articles
This web site contains all data related to regional language of
India. You can have look at it.
The Adivasi (indigenous peoples) constitute the oldest
and, often, the original inhabitants of this land. They constitute many different peoples with different languages. In the
northern part of Bangladesh the Adivasis numbered 2.2 million in the late sixties but now have declined to 0.8 million. This
decrease in their population is symptomatic of the continuing encroachment into their lands and their livelihood by the dominant
A REPORT FOR THE LAND TENURE SERVICE OF THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION,DECEMBER 2001 by Marcus Colchester
How did gender relations change, leading at some point
to the establishment of patriarchy? Engels noted that the first class oppression coincides with that of the female sex by
On the deciphering of the Indus
valley script and the solution of the brahui problem by Anans M Sharan . This is one the much needed support
to find the missing link of Indus script and Santhal.